Seeing in the Shadows

What is ShadowCam?

ShadowCam is a NASA-funded instrument hosted onboard the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) satellite. By collecting high-resolution images of the Moon’s permanently shadowed regions (PSRs), ShadowCam will provide critical information about the distribution and accessibility of water ice and other volatiles at spatial scales (1.7 m/pixel) required to mitigate risks and maximize the results of future exploration activities.

The Moon’s PSRs never see direct sunlight and are illuminated only by light reflected from nearby topographic highs. This secondary illumination is very dim. To see details within the PSRs, ShadowCam was designed to be over 200 times more sensitive than previous imagers, like the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC). As a result, ShadowCam images will allow for unprecedented views into the shadows but will saturate while imaging sunlit terrain.

Download the ShadowCam factsheet, or for more information about the KPLO satellite and KARI, please visit .

Where is KPLO?

Current Location Projected Locations Elapsed Locations 24-hour Clock: e.g. 15:35 Surface Distance: e.g. (80 km) ♦ Apollo Sites: e.g. A11

Science Objectives

  • Map albedo patterns in PSRs and interpret their nature:
    ShadowCam will search for frost, ice, and lag deposits by mapping reflectance with resolution and S/N comparable to NAC images of illuminated terrain.

  • Investigate the origin of anomalous radar signatures associated with some polar craters:
    ShadowCam will determine whether high-purity ice or rocky deposits are present inside PSRs.

  • Document and interpret temporal changes of PSR albedo units:
    ShadowCam will search for seasonal changes in volatile abundance in PSRs by acquiring monthly observations.

  • Provide hazard and trafficability information within PSRs for future landed elements:
    ShadowCam will provide optimal terrain information necessary for polar exploration.

  • Map the morphology of PSRs to search for and characterize landforms that may be indicative of permafrost-like processes:
    ShadowCam will provide unprecedented images of PSR geomorphology at scales that enable detailed comparisons with terrain anywhere on the Moon.

Camera Characteristics

Camera Design Time Delay Integration pushbroom
FOV (cross track) 2.86°
Image Scale 1.7 m/pix
Signal-to-Noise Ratio >90
Pixel Size 12 μm
Instantaneous FOV 17.16 μrad
Sensor Width 3144 (3072 scene; 72 calibration) pixels
Image Size (sensing pixels) 3072 (cross-track), 84992 (down-track)
Image Footprint (100 km altitude) 5.2 km × 144 km
Optics f/3.6 Cassegrain (Richey-Chretien)
Focal length 699.28 mm
Primary Mirror Diameter 195 mm
MTF (@Nyquist) >0.2
Aperture 194.4 mm
TDI lines 32
Sensitivity >200× the LROC NAC
Mass 8.75 kg
Volume 118 × 27 cm (w/ radiator)
Standby Power 4.5 W
Average Power 6.4 W
Peak Power 9.3 W
Image of the ShadowCam instrument in the cleanroom at MSSS in San Diego.
The rings inside the baffle (left side) were especially designed to reduce stray light from degrading pictures of PSRs. The orange material is a thermal blanket that protects the telescope from the harsh space environment.
Image of the ShadowCam instrument, focusing on the details of the electronics and radiator components.
Close up view of the focal plane electronics and radiator (checkered mirror) that will keep the detector cool while in lunar orbit.
Technical drawing of the ShadowCam instrument with the sunshade, telescope, adapter plate, electronics box, and radiator labeled.
ShadowCam technical drawing with labeled components.

Science and Operations Team

ShadowCam leverages key personnel from LROC to build, operate, and analyze observations.
Name Position Affiliation
Mark S. Robinson Principal Investigator Arizona State University
Prasun Mahanti Deputy Principal Investigator Arizona State University
Ben Bussey Co-Investigator Intuitive Machines
Lynn Carter Co-Investigator University of Arizona
Brett Denevi Co-Investigator Applied Physics Lab
Nicholas Estes Co-Investigator Arizona State University
Dave Humm Co-Investigator SPICACON
Mallory Kinczyk Co-Investigator Applied Physics Lab
Paul Lucey Co-Investigator University of Hawaii
Erwan Mazarico Co-Investigator Goddard Space Flight Center
Michael Ravine Co-Investigator Malin Space Science Systems
Emerson Speyerer Co-Investigator Arizona State University
Robert Wagner Co-Investigator Arizona State University
Shuai Li Participating Scientist University of Hawaii
Jean-Pierre Williams Participating Scientist University of California Los Angeles

Instrument Development Team

These personnel played pivotal roles in the successful development of the ShadowCam instrument.
Name Affiliation
Josh Benedictos Alliance Spacesystems
Kevin Fiflet Alliance Spacesystems
Angela Hatcher Coherent Aerospace & Defense
Steve Hoskins Coherent Aerospace & Defense
Tyson Lee Coherent Aerospace & Defense
Brian Nash Coherent Aerospace & Defense
John Payne Coherent Aerospace & Defense
Toan Pham Alliance Spacesystems
Gary Peterson Breault Research Organization
Chris Silva Coherent Aerospace & Defense
Taylor Sorenson Coherent Aerospace & Defense
Julie Stelle Coherent Aerospace & Defense
Kent Weed Coherent Aerospace & Defense
Ted White Alliance Spacesystems